Music for the neck downwards

Keith Richards

CHAPTER AIM: Introducing Rhythm. And our six pieces.



Heart of the Matter

What was the first really important musical thing ever to happen to you? Think about it.

It’s not that bit of music you first fell in love to. And it’s not that first live concert you went to. It’s not even those nursery songs our parents crooned us as babies.

This event goes back before that, in fact so far back, none of us can even remember it. And yet it is undoubtedly our most formative musical experience, for each and every one of us.

It’s the most formative musical event of our lives, and it’s a rhythmic one:


We might have sat silent in our mother’s tummy, but nothing else was. Plenty of rumbling and bodily sluicing, no doubt. But dominating everything: that constant thump of our mother’s heart.

Boom – Boom – It’s an experience that bombards us more than every second – Boom – Boom – night and day, during those first critical months of our development – Boom – Boom – It must have such a fundamental impact on us. Deep down, this is why we intuitively react to rhythm. It means that when we’re born, we already come prepackaged with an innate sense of it.


That sense of rhythm is only confirmed by our own heart, that beat-box inside us that measures out our entire life. Slow beats when we are relaxed, faster when excited or stressed. That is central to how we experience the world. and hence to the music we create.

Our resting heart rate averages 80 or 90 beats per minute. Music at that speed (Andante as a musical tempo) sounds relaxed to us. Think The Beatles Yesterday at just over 90 beats per minute.

Play music at the pace of a heart beating 50% faster (an Allegro tempoand it sounds excited. Think I Wanna Hold your Hand at 140 bpm.

Our heart-rate tells us at the most basic level how to interpret the music we hear. Musical rhythm and our own bodies are inextricably linked.


This chapter, I’m going to use our six pieces of music that make up this course to introduce six aspects of Rhythm.




1. Rhythm effects us instinctively 


A bit of our Gershwin piece  

Rhythm moves us. Literally.

Watch how we respond to music. Patting our knee – drumming our thumb – tapping our foot.

And it’s not just one bit of us: fingers, toes, neck, head, feet, tummy, leg, back – our whole body is affected by the power of Rhythm.


Take a second to think about what that means.

Music makes us physically react to it. That in itself is quite astounding. It’s not like we go to an art gallery, and get twitchy eyebrows at a particularly moving painting.

And yet that’s only the half of it. This happens at such a deep and instinctive level that often we don’t even realise we’re doing it. That means our relationship to music – specifically rhythm – is both profound and intuitive.


This clip comes from George Gershwin’s piano concerto, composed in the 1920’s. It will be the fifth piece of music. Rhythm is a sure part of the dynamism of this piece. Gershwin: he got rhythm!

Listen to that lively rhythm in action. If some part of your body is not moving by the time you get 1.40 in, then there’s little hope!




2. Rhythm makes us Dance

Our Bach piece  

Rhythm moves us, literally.

It makes us dance. All of us.

Dance is universal to every human culture. Wherever you find humans on this planet, you will find music, and you will find dancing. They are cultural siblings, the very closest of relatives. To most cultures, they are essentially the same thing

Rhythm is the language that binds them.


Classical music, to our modern sensibilities tends to be rather removed from dancing. But the generic origins of so much classical music comes directly from dance.

So many names of classical music genres – Waltz, Polonaise, Minuet, Gavotte, Polka, Sarabonde, etc come from dances. And these labels describe more than anything else the rhythmic identity of each of these sorts of music.

It was from dance movements like these that the movements of the symphony and the concerto were fashioned.


This piece of music comes from a concerto by Bach: it’s the first movement of his second Brandenburg Concerto, It owes its origins to dance forms, and you can still hear the skip of the dance at its rhythmic core.



3. Rhythm moves Us

Our Wagner piece  


Music makes us move physically and emotionally. Rhythm is the delivery method in both cases, but with emotions the connexion is more subtle.

Music and Time are inextricably linked. We describe that relationship as Rhythm.

Here today, every day

That gives music a characteristic that is different to other sorts of art. Unlike a painting that waits for you to go and stare at it, music has to be heard within a particular and rigidly defined time-frame. The moment the conductor raises his baton, or when we press play on our music player.

That means whenever we hear a piece of music, we do it locked in the thrall of time. And that has a strong emotional repercussions.


This music comes from the end of Wagner’s opera Tristan & Isolde.

As we listen, we experience the emotional curve of Isolde’s voice exactly as Wagner intended. We are connected to the ebb and flow, the rise and the fall of her words and music. We intuitively feel we are listening to her actual thoughts, as she experiences it.

The music is not telling us what she feels. It is telling us how she feels. And it’s doing so in real time.

Only cinema approaches that level of emotional intensity, making us experience emotions just as the protagonists express it. And when it does so, it usually employs music for good measure.


So music can be a pure expression of thought and emotion, in real-time. We can follow Isolde’s thoughts…or we can drift off.

It’s great having music available instantly, as we do in our internet age. But that freedom allows our attention to wonder easily, to move onto something new. I’m so like that myself, sitting with Spotify, and meandering away to another piece after half a minute of listening.


Sometimes a piece of music requires longer to take us on its emotional journey. We have to have the patience to feel the slow build when required. This piece of music, perhaps the most challenging on the course, is a perfect example of that.

It’s the reason why concerts are often the most satisfying way to enjoy music. When you are absolutely forced to sit in one place for a moment in time, you can enjoy the rhythmic and emotional flow of the sound pretty much exactly as intended.



4. Rhythm is a Musical Skeleton

Our Shostakovich piece 

Rhythm measures.

No coincidence, the word ‘measure‘ is used in music to signify the pulse or beat of a piece. It is the sub-structure of music, upon which the next edifices (Melody and then Harmony) are constructed. It is primordial, the fundamental component of making sound into music.

Feel it in the bones

Rhythm is to music what punctuation is to language: it gives it shape, structure, and definition. It supplies the rules, the grammar, from which music is made.

Stripped to its bones, Rhythm is the skeleton beneath music’s skin.

The piece comes from the final of our six pieces on this course, the 2nd movement of the 8th string quartet by the Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovich. So much of the raw effect of the music comes from its use of rhythm.


Shostakovich excerpt 

The section of the piece is described by some as an actual dance of death.

We’ll get into all that later on the course.  For the moment let’s just content ourselves with the fact the power of this music is rhythmic. This also is music for the neck downwards. It’s as true for Shostakovich as the Rolling Stones.




5. Music always has a beat 

Our Beethoven piece  

All music has a beat. It has to, or it can’t be music.

Even music like this, which comes from the Beethoven piece (his 9th symphony, the final movement) we’ll be using on this course. The music feels timeless, like it is hanging in space, totally unattached to the earthly world of rhythm.

And yet it still obeys a pulse. It’s just a very slow one! There’s always a beat to music, there has to be. You can take instruments out of music, one by one. You can lose the harmonies. You can even get rid of the melodies.

But you can never remove rhythm.

 Another bit of our Beethoven piece  

The Beethoven piece is long (17 mins), by far the longest on this course. It has to employ a variety of rhythms to even function at that length. Otherwise it would become tedious to listen to.

This section here has a much clearer rhythmic definition. A more obvious beat.


Rhythm is the first dimension of music, the basic repetitive building blocks from which a composer organises sound. Next come Melody, and finally Harmony, but for our very first dimension, we need to consider the rhythmic qualities of a piece of music.

That’s why, after ‘instruments’, there’s a rhythm section on each piece in the main part of this course. Musically, its the place to begin.




6. Rhythm and some Basics

Our Mozart piece 

Before a composer writes a note of music, they have to write a time signature. And that’s a decision that will effect the resulting music in its most basic forms. So this is important. But it’s also rather basic.

Most introductions to Rhythm that I’ve seen start right out with Time Signatures, and then get on to Tempos, who knows notation.

That’s all well and good, I’m just not sure that’s the best way to understand music. Time Signatures, Tempos, Notation: these are all whats, not a why. A piece is 3/4 time, or 6/8…these are labels we use to describe music, labels we need to use very often. But these are nonetheless essentially just labels. They can even blind us from some of the musical complexity in actual operation.


Take this piece by Mozart playing now, the final movement of his final symphony. It is written in what we call 4/4 time, from beginning to end. Four beats to the bar, every bar. That’s our rhythmic structure for this piece, as communicated by the time signature. An apparently uniform, and unchanging constant, from start to finish.

But does that actually tell you anything about the pulse of the music itself?



This music is alive with rhythm. It’s cascading everywhere, in many forms. Whatever section of this clip is playing now, I’ll guarantee something fascinating is going on, rhythmically. Different instruments taking contrasting rhythmic identities, rhythms answering one another, splitting, joining, copying, chasing…

Sometimes the music is tentative, sometimes confident. Strident. Teasing. There are so many deeper rhythmic structures to the music than those four beats to the bar.

Which is why I’m going to talk a lot about rhythmic qualities on this course, without mentioning a single time signature. Probably.



Let’s wrap this up with a quick quiz. You’re going to need to listen carefully to two pieces of music…


We’re going to take two clips. Listen carefully to both.

Clip 1

Clip 2

Which of these clips is rhythmically better?

Think about the rhythmic qualities of each piece, and listen carefully to both clips before answering. ..

Click For Answer
Stupid question, plainly. But rhythm is the route into both pieces. They both use polyrhythms, the combining of different rhythms on top of one another. The first does so through sharper rhythmic contrasts, the second through a slower gradual rhythmic phasing.

Understanding music comes through listening, not judging. If you listened to both clips, pat on the back.


So Time (or more specifically Rhythm) describes the first axis of musical space.

Next chapter comes music’s 2nd dimension:



  • The rest of the music we will meet in much greater detail in the course itself!

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